Information transformation and storing is the basic nature of the computer. Thus, a computer must be able to take input, process it and produce output. Here a question raised in our mind that is, how is the information/data representation in a computer? The data represents in the computer is in the form of Binary form means 0 zero’s and one’s.

The data/information everything is represented in the form of binary digits, in these case characters also represented in the form of binary digits. So we need codes for representing specific symbols are characters or numbers. International committee set some common codes for data representation. Those codes are named ASCII, EBDCDIC, ISCII etc. We need to represent numbers in binary and should be able to perform operations on these numbers.

In this regards we have a look into number system at once because we are performing arithmetic operations on the numbers.

Number systems are octal, hexadecimal, decimal and binary. These are commonly used number systems. These number systems are used to represent the data in Quantitative form.

Definition of Number system: A number system of base (also called radix) r is a system, which has r distinct symbols for r digits. . A string of these symbolic digits represents a number. To determine the value that a number represents, we multiply the number by its place value that is an integer power of r depending on the place it is located and then find the sum of weighted digits.

Decimal Number System: Decimal number system has ten digits those are 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Any decimal number can be represented as a string of these digits. Here total decimal digit count is 10 so the radix of this system is 10.

**See the below representations:**

543 = 5 x 10^{2} + 4 x 10^{1} + 3 x 10^{0}

789.56 = 7 x 10^{2} + 8 x 10^{1} + 9 x 10^{0} + 5 x 10^{-1} + 6 x 10^{-2}

Here 10 is the **radix **we know, and power of 10 represents the place of the digit.

Continued……

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**IP Address Representation**

In this blog I discussed about What is IP address and how to represent it.

Generally IP address is represented in 32-bit format. In expansion of IP is Internet protocol address.

Dot (.) is the decimal and this notation is used to represent as number format data into string of decimal each is separated by a dot operator. Technically this representation is noted as synonym of dotted notation. Or quad dotted notation, specifically used to represent IP addresses.

An internet protocol address has 32-bits.

See the below example

These are separated by dot and the bits divided into 4 octets that are in decimal numbers ranging from 0 to 255 and concatenate together by place dot between them.

There are two types of IP Protocols implemented on systems today are IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 is the 4th version majority of the systems worldwide support this. New version is IPv6 it improves the limitations of IPv4. The gap in version sequence between IPv4 and IPv6 resulted from the assignment of number 5 to the experimental Internet Stream Protocol in 1979, which however was never referred to as IPv5.

Systems can identify by using their IP address only.

For example consider the IP address 172.16.254.1

Convert these individual values into binary first

172 – 10101100

16 – 00010000

254 – 1111110

1 – 00000001

These are all can be represented in the form of 8 –bit

Each individual called as octet or byte or 8-bit. These are 4 so 4*8 = 32 so it is in 32 bit format.

Using binary arithmetic, it’s easy to calculate the highest number that a byte can represent. If you turn on all the bits in a byte (11111111) and then convert that byte to a decimal number

(128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1), those bits total 255.