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Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure

Introduction to Atomic Structure

ATOMIC Structure and ATOM

Atom is the smallest particle of an element. It consists of a nucleus, which is composed of neutron and proton, whereas, electrons are found outside the nucleus.

Democritus, a Greek philosopher (460-370 BC) gave an idea that matter is composed of small non-dividing particle, which he named as ‘a-tomio’.

Later, atomic theory given by Dalton in 1808 made the concept more clearer.

DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY

He stated that:

  • Matter is composed of indivisible atoms.
  • All the atoms of a given element have identical properties.
  • Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in a fixed ratio.
  • No new product is formed in a chemical reaction, there is just reorganization.

ATOMIC MASS UNIT

Atomic mass unit can be defined as a mass exactly equal to one twelfth the mass of one carbon-12 atom. It is abbreviated as amu.

1 amu= 1.66056 *10-24g

Mass of an hydrogen atom=1.6736 * 10 g

Mass of H atom in amu= 1.0078 amu

MOLECULAR MASS

Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses of the elements present in a molecule.

e.g.

Molecular lass of carbon dioxide (CO2)= 12.011u + 2*16.00u = 44.011u

MOLE CONCEPT

One mole is the amount of substance that contain as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of C-12.

One mole of C-12 weighs = 12g/mol

Mass of a C-12 atom = 1.992648 * 10-23 g

The no. of atom in one mole = 6.0221367*1023

AVOGADRO CONSTANT

The number of entities in one mol is known as Avogadro constant. It is denoted by NA.

NA=6.022 * 1023

1 mol of H atoms= 6.022 * 1023 atoms

1 mol of water molecules= 6.022 * 1023 water molecules

 

Q.1. Which is the smallest particle of an element?

  1. Compound
  2. Matter
  3. Substance
  4. Atom

Ans. d

Q.2. What are compounds?

  1. When atoms of different elements combine in a fixed ratio
  2. When atoms of different elements combine in a non fixed ratio
  3. Same as atoms
  4. Smallest particle of an element

Ans. a

Q.3. What is the molecular mass of CO2?

  1. 33.011u
  2. 44.011u
  3. 50u
  4. 60u

Ans. b

Q.4. 1 mol of H atom is equal to

  1. 6.022 * 1023 atoms
  2. 6.032 * 1023 atoms
  3. 6.022 * 1022 atoms
  4. 6.022 * 1024 atoms

Ans. a

Q.5. Dalton Atomic Theory states:

  1. All the atoms of a given element have identical properties.
  2. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in a fixed ratio.
  3. No new product is formed in a chemical reaction, there is just reorganization.
  4. All

Ans. d

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